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‘Keep the horizon straight’ is one of the important composition rules in photography where the horizon has to be kept parallel to the horizontal side of the frame. Similarly keeping the vertical lines parallel to vertical side of frame creates a balance in the image, there are perspective control (PC) lenses also known as Tilt & Shift lenses which help in overcoming the problem of converging verticals.
A slight tilt is considered as a mistake but an intentional tilt, a deliberate slant where degree of tilt is quite high is the Dutch Tilt or Dutch Angle. Not to be confused with the country Holland or Netherlands, the term ‘Dutch’ originates from ‘Deutsch’ meaning German. So basically Dutch Tilt, Dutch Angle and German Angle are same and used very often in cinematography.
In this technique the camera is set at an angle similar to tilted head where horizon is not parallel to the bottom of the frame. By using the line dynamics, a drama is created in the scene and causes an uneasiness or tension. The eyes, used to seeing the symmetry and balance, notice the drastic change in perspective of the subject.
Using diagonals while composing changes the scene from one point perspective to two point perspective, the subject looks three dimensional. Here either the subject is turned around or camera is moved to see the depth in the subject. In Dutch Tilt, the camera is set at an angle on its roll axis making the lines appear diagonal instead of parallel to the sides of the frame. The angle is quite unique and make a tremendous impact on the viewer and can also lead to abstraction from a definite form or shape. Besides catching the attention, the angle can make the viewer think about the subject and interpret in own way.
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© All Rights Reserved Ravi Dhingra
20 under 35, 20under35, 46&2, aaron pinto, Alliance Francaise de Delhi, apparel, architecture, Arjun Rathi, art, art installation, Avinash Jai Singh, communication, design, Design X Design, dhruvsingh, doodlage, exhibition, fashion, GDD, graphic, graphic design, habitat, Iftikhar-mulk Chishti, industrial, interior design, Jodi, kaleekal, katha, Kichu, Meshined, Nishita Kamdar, poochki, product, sealab, Shiva Nallaperumal, Studio IF, studio lagom, textile, tod design, Twenty under 35, twentyunderthirtyfive, woodworker, zero studio
An exhibition is not only about the artworks or products on display, it is also about how these are displayed. Exhibition design is an art in itself and success of a show depends also on the aesthetics involved in the process of showcasing. A good display enhances the visual appeal and makes the whole viewing experience more interactive.
‘Twenty under thirty five’ at Gallerie Romain Rolland, Alliance Francaise de Delhi is a perfect example where the display is meticulously planned for each of the exhibitor and complements the products and installations. Curated by Design X Design, a joint initiative of Alliance Francaise de Delhi and Studio IF, the exhibition is a must visit for anyone related to art and design.
“ Is Indian design recognisable? Is there a vision guiding it? Can tradition and modernity, continuity and change co-exist in it? Is it culturally relevant? Questions such as these are more alive today than ever before. One sure way of gaining an insight into this and more is by looking at the work of young upcoming designers. ‘Design X Design Exhibition: 20under35’ attempts to do just that by sharing the design philosophies, working methods and future aspirations of the twenty shortlisted design practices under the age of thirty-five” – Iftikhar-mulk Chishti, Convener, Design X Design.
From January 24 to February 13, 2018.
Closing walk: Tuesday, February 13, 6pm.
Gallerie Romain Rolland,
Alliance Francaise de Delhi,
72 Lodi Estate, New Delhi.
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For a photographer, designer, advertising agency, publisher or printer, ‘300dpi’ is not an alien term, it is a kind of prerequisite for submission of photographs. From entering a photography contest to submitting images after a professional photo shoot, one comes across this term very often. For most of the people in the industry, 300dpi means high resolution but is it the right equation to describe the resolution of a photograph ?
In the current scenario 300dpi is the most misused term, it is rather incorrect, outdated and incomplete.
DPI is abbreviation for Dots Per Inch, a term which is related to printer dots per inch.
The resolution of a photograph is ascertained by pixels. Pixels are the square, solid colored smallest element of an image file. Camera manufacturers highlight MP-MegaPixels to describe the quality of sensor in the camera.
Megapixels mean million pixels, a 10mp sensor has 10 million pixels which is calculated by multiplying the horizontal pixel dimension with the vertical pixel dimension.
A 10 megapixel photo is 3872 pixels wide by 2592 pixels high
(3872 x 2592 = 10,036,224 pixels = 10 megapixels)
An 18 megapixel photo is 5184 pixels wide by 3456 pixels high
(5184 x 3456 = 17,915,904 pixels = 18 megapixels)
A camera does not give output in dots, only pixels are relevant in a digital image. When the term DPI is used, it really mean Pixels Per Inch or PPI.
When it comes to printing a photograph, even 300ppi is not the complete term, it does not mean anything unless accompanied by the size of the print.
A 6 inches by 4 inches at 300ppi will have 1800 by 1200 pixels ( 6×300 by 4×300) or 2.16mp (1800×1200). A same print at 100ppi will be 600 by 400 pixels and at 200ppi will be 1200 by 800 pixels.
A 12×8 inches print at 300 dpi will be 3600×2400 pixels or 8.64mp
A camera with a resolution of 24.2MP is able to record an image which contains a total of 24160256 pixels. Shot in an image ratio of 3:2 a 24.2MP image would have a resolution of 6016 x 4016 pixels. With this resolution, a print size of 20.05×13.38 inches is possible at 300ppi. At 200ppi the print size will be 30×20 inches and 60×40 inches at 100ppi. At 72ppi the maximum print size without any quality loss can be printed which will be 83.55×55.77 inches with this sensor. Below 72ppi, the print quality will start deteriorating but again it depends on viewing distance, sometimes the big hoardings which are placed at a distance are printed at lower than 72ppi.
So next time if you come across 300dpi ask for print size and do not forget to point out the difference between dpi and ppi.
© Ravi Dhingra
A search in five direction textile exhibition, A search in five directions, Amar Vastra Kosh, Block Printing, Brocade, Chabadi Bhat, Crafts Museum, Crafts Museum Delhi, crafts of India, Dhaari, Dhoti, Dr. Salim Ali, Dr. Sudha Dhingra, exhibition, Gyasar, handicrafts of India, handloom, Handloom weaving, handlooms of india, Ikat, Indian Textiles, Jaaali, Jamdani, Kshtera, Leheriaya, Mapu, Martand Singh, Ministry of Textiles India, Morkuti, Morkuti Pichhvai, Morpankhi Textiles, National Institute of Fashion Technology, NIFT, Odisha Bandha, Patan Patola, Patola, Pethapur, Pichhavai, Pichhvai, Pudu Pavu, Pupul Jayakar, Rajnigandha, Rasa, Rusnata, Sanganer, sari, Sudha Dhingra, Textile cultures of India, Textile Design, textiles, textiles exhibition, textiles of india, traditional textile of India, Tree of life, Vishwakarma, weaving
Vishwakarma, is the presiding deity of all craftsmen including potters, weavers, ironsmiths etc. This was an appropriate name given to a series of exhibitions which were conceived in 1980s to showcase the textile cultures of India through ‘Festival of India’. Smt. Pupul Jayakar, the doyen of Indian culture was given the task to show the diversity of Indian Culture through performing arts performances, textiles, crafts and cuisines to the world. Exhibitions were held in United Kingdom, United States of America, Sweden, China and France, which were highly appreciated and gave the people an insight into Indian folk, tribal and regional cultural diversity.
Under the name of Vishwakarma, seven textile art and history exhibitions were held between 1981 and 1991, which was a result of a harmonious interaction between handloom weavers, designers and artists. Shri Martand Singh, affectionately called Mapu by everyone, is given the credit to give a new lease to the Indian textiles. He took the charge of designing and presenting the textiles for the Festival of India. His approach towards reviving and revitalizing the handloom sector was unique.
The first Vishwakarma was called Master Weavers, to celebrate the skills of handloom weavers of Ikat, Jamdani and Brocade. Around 600 designs were made for this exhibition. The handloom weavers working with Weavers Service Center, under Ministry of Textiles, collaborated with textile designers to revive lost and languishing techniques of dyeing and weaving. ‘Pudu Pavu’, the second in the series concentrated on the weaving traditions of saris, dhoties and textiles in the Southern part of the country. Next one ‘Rasa’, the variant moods, resulted in sampling of around 300 designs. ‘Dhaari’ meaning lines was an attempt to look at the lines or stripes in different techniques which was explored in all medium of textile production in ten Indian States. Trellis or ‘Jaali’ experimented with the play of light and shadow and tone on tone through design innovation in Jamdani techniques. The sixth in the series, named as ‘Kshetra’ or field was all about crossing the boundaries or pushing the limits, which gave 600 new and diverse designs. By this time the handloom weavers had become confident and trusted Mapu’s team of designers and artists and collaborated to explore and experiment. The seventh and the last one “Birds and animals’ was a tribute to late Dr. Salim Ali, Ornithologist. Around 1800 animals and birds found in India were depicted by using Jamdani weaving, Leheriya and stencil printing and block printing.
What is highly commendable is that Mapu’s vision was not only to look at the aesthetics, but also to explore technique, material and socio cultural nuances to create something which would remind people of tradition but offer something new. Textiles of the Vishwakarma exhibition, developed around 30 years back and documentation of textiles under ‘Amar Vastra Kosh’ has till date remained an important source of authentic, unadulterated information. The most amazing part is that Mapu imbibed the beauty of the technique along with the emphasis on changing with the times.
This was the first time that the idea of exploring contemporary relevance with traditional knowledge and skill was explored and fetched fantastic results. The process must have been tedious as Indian crafts and techniques are inherited and passed on as oral tradition. Finding something that is lost or hidden would have been exciting but some of these journeys would have ended in disappointments too.
‘A search in five directions’- an exhibition of handcrafted textiles from the Vishwakarma exhibitions is presented by Devi Art Foundation at the newly renovated galleries at the Crafts Museum, New Delhi. The textiles offer unending delight to the viewers into the world of Indian textiles, and leave the textile enthusiasts mesmerized and spellbound with the quality of craftsmanship, eye for detailing and the unique and distinct regional character.
Crafts Museum courtyard on way to the exhibition dressed up with Rajnigandha flowers.
Jamdani Neelambari laid out in the front. Char Bagh Brocade panel from Varanasi in the background.
Dye painted and printed Tree of Life
Odisha Bandha– weft Ikat shows lotuses, coiled serpents and poems in Oriya script
Padma Pichhavai showing the lotus buds and full bloom in profile and realistic as it is seen in Ajanta frescoes
Morkuti Pichhavai depicts the dance of the peacock to court the peahen
Rusnata (Russian influenced) Gyasar Brocades made in Varanasi for Buddhist monasteries
Base of an elaborate and resplendent tree of life achieved by the dye- painting process using indigo and madder
Patan Patola ‘Chabadi Bhat’– baskets of flowers pattern
Screen and block -printed textile for the seventh exhibition ‘Birds and animals’ using single colour with half and quarter tones of black to fetch painting quality
Bengal Jamdani for ‘Jaali’
Block printed birds on a large hanging measuring around 9 meters X 5 meters
Metallic Gyasar for the exhibition at USSR on the theme ‘Jaali’, woven at Varanasi
Morpankhi textiles. Peacock feathers are woven as extra weft
Showcasing different weave patterns in a weave blanket
Design directory of block printing patterns from Sanganer, Rajasthan
Repertoire of block prints from Pethapur, Gujarat
Single Ikat Patola from Gujarat. Transition from traditional patterns to geometrics
Text by Dr. Sudha Dhingra, Professor, Textile Design Department, National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi
© Photographs : Ravi Dhingra
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